What does the percentage mean?

The percentage equals the proportion of essential activities (tasks) in this occupation which, in theory, could already be performed by computers or computer-controlled machines. In this regard, research speaks about the substitution potential of the occupation. For the nearly 4,000 occupations available in the Job-Futuromat, the Federal Employment Agency asked occupational experts to determine which tasks are essential for an occupation on the basis of training regulations or job vacancies.

On the basis of the technological possibilities available in 2013, Dengler and Matthes (2015) determined for the first time for each task included in BERUFENET whether they could potentially be performed completely automatically by computers or computer-controlled machines. Because many new technologies have been developed since then and tasks that were previously considered non-replaceable could potentially be performed by robots or computer programmes today, a reassessment for the technological possibilities in 2016 was made and the substitution potential was updated. The update, however, did not just consider the changes in the technological possibilities but also that the job profiles in some occupations have changed and that new tasks or occupations have come about (Dengler/Matthes 2018). The determination of the substitution potential is exclusively geared towards the assessment of the technical feasibility. The substitution potential of an occupation results when you divide the number of replaceable tasks of an occupation by the total of all its tasks and multiply this by 100.

The fact that a task has been classified as replaceable does not mean that it will actually be automated in the next few years. Perhaps human work is more economic, more flexible or of better quality in this case. Also, legal or ethical obstacles may oppose automation. Also in occupations with a high substitution potential - even 100 % - it is possible that many tasks will continue to be performed by humans.

The assessment as to whether a task is replaceable or not is a snapshot. This means that even in occupations with a low substitution potential - even 0 % - in the future, it will be quite possible that tasks will be replaceable which we still cannot imagine that they will ever be performed by machines, robots or computer programmes.

In fact, if tasks are actually replaced, this does not necessarily mean that an occupation disappears because of that. However, it is likely that the tasks performed in this occupation will change: While the replaceable tasks will be performed by machines, the non-replaceable tasks will gain importance for the humans, and new tasks will emerge. Continuous further training is, therefore, gaining importance.

Occupations in the Job-Futuromat

The Job-Futuromat contains information for almost 4,000 individual occupations (as of February 2018). These are occupations known in Germany according to the BERUFENET expert database of the Federal Employment Agency.

Statistics and research do not refer to these individual occupations just as “occupations” but as “core occupations”, which again include more than 20,000 occupational titles. These are summarised in the so-called Classification of Occupations 2010 (KldB 2010) into types of occupations, occupational groups and other superordinate categories. In that, occupational titles are grouped together whose skills and knowledge relevant for the pursuit of the occupation are similar.



Please find more on data and methodology on our FAQ page.

How do the sliders change the automation probability?

When you run the Job-Futuromat for an occupation for the first time, the automation probability for the selected occupation will be calculated - research calls this the substitution potential. Each task has the same influence in this - it will be weighted equally. This corresponds to the initial central position of all sliders.

Since not all tasks are performed with the same frequency in actual everyday work, you can use the sliders to adjust their frequency:

Moving the slider to the right means that this task is performed more frequently; moving the slider to the left means that the task is performed less frequently. The substitution potential increases when a replaceable task is performed more frequently, and decreases when it is performed less frequently. On the other hand, the substitution potential decreases when a non-replaceable task is performed more frequently, and increases when it is performed less frequently.

If the substitution potential in the selected occupation is 0 %, the sliders have no influence: this means that all tasks in an occupation are non-replaceable. Also re-weighting the tasks does not change the substitution potential then.

If the substitution potential in the selected occupation is 100 %, moving the sliders also does not change anything, because even re-weighting the tasks does not change the fact that all tasks are replaceable in theory.

The Job-Futuromat takes into account only the essential tasks usually to be performed in the selected occupation. In addition to these, other tasks may also be important in your job. Because these also affect the substitution potential, the result of the Job-Futuromat should not be misunderstood as a forecast of how likely it is to be replaced by a computer or computer-controlled machines in your own specific job.



Please find more on data and methodology on our FAQ page.

What do the figures regarding the number of employees mean?

The number of employees includes both full- and part-time employment (including trainees). Only employees subject to social security contributions are considered. For occupations with a high proportion of self-employed persons, civil servants or people in marginal employment, the actual number of people in this occupation might be much higher.

The data come from Federal Employment Agency statistics and are based on employer notifications. They apply for 31 December of each year respectively.

The data do not relate to individual occupations but to so-called types of occupations. The almost 4,000 occupations which can be found via the search field of the Job-Futuromat are grouped together into approximately 1,200 types of occupations. Federal Employment Agency statistics only has the numbers of employees for these types of occupations available, not for individual occupations.

If there were less than three employees in an occupation in a year, no data will be displayed for reasons of data protection.



Please find more on data and methodology on our FAQ page.

What do the figures regarding the “mean salary” mean?

The mean wage describes the mean monthly gross wage, represented as so-called median, i.e., half of the employees receive a smaller wage, the other half of the employees receive a higher wage. It is calculated for all full-time employees subject to social security contributions in any type of occupation (excluding trainees). It is based on the annual gross wage which employers report to Federal Employment Agency statistic until 31 December of each year (see Methodenbericht). For occupations with a high proportion of self-employed persons or civil servants, the values can deviate from that.

Individual wages can differ greatly from the median sometimes. This is why the fluctuation range around the median, within which 50 per cent of all wages lie, is specified in addition. The lower end corresponds to the first quartile (the limit between the first and second quarter of all employees - sorted by the monthly gross wage); the upper end corresponds to the third quartile (the limit between the third and fourth quarters of all employees - sorted by the monthly gross wage).

If the monthly gross wage of a full-time employee exceeds the so-called “contribution assessment ceiling”, Federal Employment Agency statistics will not include this exactly. If the wage is above this threshold for more than half of all employees, the median cannot be calculated. In these cases, only the contribution assessment ceiling will be specified. It changes annually and was € 6,200 per month in West Germany and € 5,400 per month in East Germany in 2016. The representation is based on the lowest contribution assessment ceiling applicable to the federal territory for East Germany (>€ 5,400).

The data do not relate to individual occupations but to so-called types of occupations. The almost 4,000 occupations which can be found via the search field of the Job-Futuromat are grouped together into approximately 1,200 types of occupations. Federal Employment Agency statistics only has the monthly gross wages for these types of occupations available, not for individual occupations.

If, in one year, there was wage information for less than 1,000 employees in one type of occupation, no wage will be displayed since Federal Employment Agency statistics classifies their calculation as not reliable.



Please find more on data and methodology on our FAQ page.

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None of the typical tasks in this occupation could currently be automated through the use of digital technologies. The automatability in this occupation is therefore ( percent). What does the percentage mean?

Nevertheless, it is possible that the automatability in this occupation may change over time, as technologies evolve and tasks profiles can change.

of the typical tasks in this occupation could currently be automated through the use of digital technologies. The automatability in this occupation is therefore ( percent). What does the percentage mean?

However, this does not mean that automation actually takes place. Human work, for example, can be more flexible, more economical or of better quality.

of the typical tasks in this occupation could currently be automated through the use of digital technologies. The automatability in this occupation is therefore ( percent). What does the percentage mean?

However, this does not mean that automation will actually take place and that the occupation will no longer exist in the future. Instead, only the tasks profiles can change. In addition, human work can be more flexible, more economical or of better quality.

This occupation belongs to the occupational group :

Employees

End of :
since

What does the number of employees mean?

Median gross monthly salary

The mean gross monthly wage was above the assessment threshold of at the end of .

End of :
since

What do the numbers for the median monthly salary mean?

2020

The automatability in this occupation is ,
could be performed by digital technologies.

Automatability:
usual occupation:
in your job:
%

Customize your job profile

and see how automation changes. How do the sliders change the automation probability?

You can adapt your job profile
to your everyday job life.

You can adapt your job profile
to your everyday job life.

How often do you perform the following tasks in your day-to-day work
or how often do you need the following skills?

Set the frequency with the sliders!

The automatability in your job does not change, since none of the typical tasks in your occupation could currently be automated through the use of digital technologies.
However, the technologies continue to develop, so that in the future, tasks could be automated in your occupation, which until now could only be performed by humans.
However, the automatability in your occupation does not change, since all typical tasks in your occupation could be automated through the use of digital technologies.
However, this does not mean that automation will actually take place and that the occupation will no longer exist in the future. Instead, only the tasks profiles can change. In addition, human work can be more flexible, more economical or of better quality.
reset the sliders
means that the task is replaceable
means that the task is not replaceable
How will your job develop?
Development of the numbers of employees
Employees
(subject to social insurance contributions)
What do the figures on the number of employees mean?

Development of the mean monthly salaries
median gross
monthly wage
What do the figures regarding the “mean salary” mean?

Sources and Method
The Job-Futuromat is based on the occupational information of approximately 4,000 individual occupations. These come from the BERUFENET expert database of the Federal Employment Agency. This contains, among other things, information about the tasks to be generally performed in all occupations known in Germany.
The IAB has determined for each of these tasks whether they can be automated or not (see study of Dengler/Matthes 2018). Data on the number of employees and the gross monthly wages come from the Federal Employment Agency statistics. Please find more on data and methodology on our FAQ page!